Canada – wild landscape, a colorful history, and the Queen
Canada is the second largest country in the world with almost ten million square kilometers. Its fascinating landscapes, Canada’s eventful history, and multicultural society make Canada a world-class city. The history of Canada began about 30,000 years ago when Siberian nomads came to North America via the then existing land bridge. The next historical phase was marked by the expedition of Europeans in the 15th and 16th centuries. The first starting point was the trade of the Spaniards and Portuguese with the natives. Dominant in the colonization of Canada were the French and especially the British, who accompany the history of Canada and its development to this day.
Canada is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, and British monarch Queen Elizabeth II is the nominal head of Canada. A visible sign of this relationship is the image of the Queen in the town halls and on the front of the Canadian coins. Today’s Canada is made up of ten distinct provinces: Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario (capital of Ottawa), Prince Edward Island, Quebec, and Saskatchewan, as well as the Territories Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Yukon.
The First Nations – the Inuits and Métis, the indigenous people of Canada
Siberian nomads crossed today’s the Bering Sea about 30,000 years ago. With them began the early settlement and thus the history of Canada. In the centuries that followed, their descendants moved further and further south. These nomads are considered the ancestors of the indigenous people of North America. The history of Canada shows that these peoples could adapt to different living conditions, such as the Inuit (“people”) in northern Nunavut and the Iroquois further south. Dominant were the fishing and agriculture. Before the settlement by the Europeans inhabited several thousand Eskimos (“those who eat raw meat”), correctly called Inuit, and about 200,000 Indians with about 50 different tribal cultures, the country. They helped the settlers get into the big, to get along with the wildland. Throughout Canada’s history, it has become apparent that the settlers have built a prosperous nation, but the locals as a whole have had some downsides. The Mestizos (Métis) are descendants of Native Americans and French-speaking settlers. Since the 1980s, the indigenous people, committed to constitutional and land rights, and mining rights to recover the mineral wealth back.
The east coast of Canada – target of early sailors and explorers
Under the leadership of Leif Eriksson, the Vikings landed on the coast of Newfoundland, the eastern part of eastern Canada, some 1000 years after Christ. Despite the abundant fishing grounds, the Vikings were not interested, as the winters were much too cold along with other sinuosities. They have been an episode in Canada’s history without much effect. Things were different when in 1497 the Italian navigator commissioned by the English crown Giovanni Caboto (English John Cabot) entered Newfoundland. Since seafarers thought of him as having reached India, they had called the indigenous people of Canada “Indians.” John Cabot managed to attract European fishermen with his descriptions of lush fishing grounds. In 1603, the Frenchman, Samuel de Champlain, who is considered the father of “New France”, entered
Marking the history of Canada in the 18th century was that the hostilities between the English and the French were transferred from the “Old World” to the “New World”. In 1763, however, France ceded its Canadian title to Britain. The period between 1760 and 1867 was the time of “British North America” and the founding period of Canada as well as setting the course for the further history of Canada. The Canadians then lived in fear of being taken over by the US, which probably favored their ability to merge, the founding of the “Dominion of Canada”.
The Dominion of Canada
The British North America Act established the Dominion of Canada in 1867. The Dominion was on 1 July 1867, first the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick on. Since 1879, July 1 is officially a public holiday, the Dominion Day. He still commemorates the formation of Canada as a Commonwealth state. The name of the holiday was renamed in 1982 with reference to the Canada Act in Canada Day, which came into force that same year.
The Dominion called the beginning of the 20th century, the self-governing colonies, and Ireland within the former British Empire. The word, taken from a psalm of the King James Bible. The psalm part reads: “He shall have dominion, from sea to sea, and from the river to the ends of the earth” (“He rules from sea to sea, from the river to the ends of the earth”). The word Dominion was intended to document the bondage of Canada to the monarchical form of the United Kingdom. To date, the motto is derived from the Psalm 72.8: Motto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare (From sea to sea).
The Canada Day is celebrated in all provinces today; there are many festivals, concerts, festivals, as well as air and naval shows and fireworks.
The biggest celebration will be with the Prime Minister of Canada and the Governor General of Canada on Parliament Hill in Ottawa.
To this day, the Dominions form the British Commonwealth of Nations with the motherland Great Britain. However, since the 1970s, new linguistic usage documents the meanwhile changed nature of the Commonwealth. No longer the British queen is head of state in Canada, Australia or New Zealand, but the Queen of Canada, Australia or New Zealand.
The Statute of Westminster and other milestones
A significant milestone in the history of Canada was the year 1931. That year, by virtue of the Statute of Westminster, Canada became de facto an independent state in the Commonwealth, gaining its legislative independence. The Statute of Westminster did not apply to Newfoundland, which joined Canada in 1949.
During the two world wars, Canada played a role with the support of the Allies, which promoted its recognition as an autonomous state. In particular, the Battle of Vimy Ridge in 1917 promoted the cohesion of Canada as a unified nation. Another step was taken in 1969 when the Official Languages Act codified the equality of the two national languages, English and French. The dominant ethnic groups in Canada are the Anglo and French Canadians (in Quebec and New Brunswick, a third of the population). Throughout Canada’s history, regional and language differences make national identity more difficult, but this is mitigated by the great liberalism in Canada. Since the decisive event in the history of Canada, Canada is increasingly emancipating itself from Britain as the transition from Dominion status to the recognized state. The fascinating land stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean has been developing since the First World War to further independence and to create more influence in the world.
The Canada Act of 1982 (German Canada Law) resolved upon entry into the British Parliament all constitutional ties Canada to the United Kingdom. Until that time it was de facto possible for the British Parliament to amend the constitutional law, ie the Canadian constitution. The Canada Law became legal in the United Kingdom on March 29, 1982, and on April 17, after being signed by Elizabeth II, the Queen of Canada in Ottawa also in Canada.